Welche Botschaft hat Lettland?

Lettland Freiheitsdenkmal

Freiheitsdenkmal in Riga

“Nur wer die Geschichte kennt, versteht die Gegenwart” – so in etwa könnte die Botschaft lauten, die Lettland hat. Denn der kleine Staat im Baltikum blickt auf eine äußerst bewegte Vergangenheit zurück. Lange Spielball der angrenzenden Großmächte (in jüngerer Zeit vor allem Deutschland und Rußland), erlangte Lettland 1991 mit dem Zerfall der Sowjet-Union die Eigenständigkeit, freilich nicht ganz ohne Konflikte. Das Miteinander der einzelnen Volksgruppen muss sich noch einpendeln; die Schatten der jüngeren Vergangenheit wirken noch immer nach (= erst Okkupation durch die Deutschen 1941, danach „Befreiung“ durch die Rote Armee). Man darf nicht vergessen, dass Lettland (neben den beiden anderen baltischen Staaten Estland und Litauen) der einzige Staat war, der von den Nazis überfallen wurde und dessen Staatlichkeit nach 1945 “….nicht einmal in eingeschränktem Umfang wieder hergestellt wurde. Die von 1920 bis 1940 unabhängigen Republiken verschwanden komplett und für fast ein halbes Jahrhundert unter dem Dach der Sowjetunion.” (in: Der Spiegel, Die Fliegen im Bernstein).

Wenn man genauer formulieren will, welche Botschaft Lettland hat, dann muss das Thema der Kollaboration mit den Nazi-Deutschen aber ebenso berücksichtigt werden wie die Untaten, die dem Land nach Ende des 2.Weltkrieges unter Stalin angetan wurden. Die Rote Armee kam 1944 als „Befreier“ ins Land; viele der ehemaligen Rot-Armisten blieben dann. Vor allem das Verhältnis zu den Russen im Land ist noch immer ein sensibler Punkt.

Die lettische Flagge (drei horizontale Streifen in den Farben „blutrot“ und „weiß“) symbolisiert ganz gut diese wechselhafte und oft auch leidvolle Geschichte, die das kleine Land auf seinem Weg in die Unabhängigkeit durchlebt hat. Die Farben stehen für ein blutgetränktes weißes Leinentuch, in welches ein lettgallischer Stammesfürst zur letzten Ruhe gebettet worden war. Überlieferungen zufolge wurde diese Flagge bereits im 13. Jahrhundert von lettgallischen Stämmen benutzt.

Heute bildet Lettland zusammen mit den beiden Nachbarstaaten Estland (angrenzend im Norden) und Litauen (der südliche Nachbar) das Zentrum dessen, was umgangsprachlich als das „Baltikum“ bezeichnet wird. Viele Menschen haben Lettland als Urlaubsziel für sich entdeckt. Parks und Denkmäler laden zum entspannen ein. Unterkünfte sind nicht schwer zu finden. Viele Menschen suchen sie via Internet, z.B.mit dem Suchbegriff “Hotels Lettland”.

Und um die eingangs gestellte Frage zu beantworten: Es dürfte für das Selbstverständnis der jungen Republik wichtig sein, inwieweit der Blick nach vorne gerichtet wird und aus der Vergangenheit gelernt wird ohne dabei in „ewig-gestrigen“ Diskussionen verhaftet zu bleiben. Mit unserer Seite wollen wir in dieser Diskussion eine neutrale Plattform sein, festzustellen, wohin sich der Blick als auch die Diskussion entwickelt!

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